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Eastern Washington University Friend by Day Enemy by Night Book Report

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Review of your selected book

§ must provide book title and author

§ Who, what, when, where

§ Major aspects of life in this culture covered by this writer with in-depth overview of 2 areas.

Connection to some aspects of text and/or lecture.

oIdentify at least 3 detailed connections

oProvide specific examples between the book and text/lecture.

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CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY:
A PSYCHOLOGY OF PEOPLES
Chapter 5: Development and Socialization
Typical coverage of Developmental
Issues in Psyc 100

Focus is on:
 Physical,
cognitive and social changes across the
lifespan

Key Issues
 Nature
v. nurture
 Continuity v. stages of growth
 Stability v. change

Chapter breakdown
 Childhood,
adolescence and adult life

Key theories
 Piaget
– cognitive development stages
 Harlow, Ainsworth and others – importance of contact
and human attachments
 Development of self-concept
 Parenting influences
 Kohlberg – moral development
 Erickson – psychosocial development
 Life as an adult
Chapter Five

Overview of topics of coverage
 Universal
brains develop into culturally variable
minds
 Sensitive periods for cultural socialization
 Cultural differences in psychological processes
emerge with age
 What kinds of childhood experiences differ across
cultures?
 Difficult developmental transitions
 Socialization through education
Universal brains develop into
culturally variable minds
 Starting
assumption about humans – we are
cultural beings
 Basic premise – we are born with biological
potentials that enable us to learn
◼ Types


of evidence
Language acquisition
Acquiring culture
Sensitive periods for cultural
socialization
 Basic
premise – there are sensitive periods for
learning different skills and its more difficult to learn
these skills once that period has passed
 Sensitive

Evidence that this is the case





periods for language acquisition
Language preferences in infants
Language acquisition in children v. adults
fMRI evidence of bilingual persons
Case studies of Genie and Wild Boy of Aveyron
Basic idea – we are born prepared to learn language and
through culture we learn different languages

Sensitive periods for acquiring culture
 Language
and culture highly dependent on one
another – “language is the communicating function of
culture”
 How do we measure acquisition of culture?
◼ Minoura’s



study of immigrants from Japan
Before age 9 – became “Americanized”
From 9 to 15 – can learn but still had Japanese sensibilities
After age 15 – never fully embrace
◼ Relationship
between acquiring culture and acquiring
language – those who mastered English felt most at home
Cultural differences in psychological
processes emerge with age

General expectation
 Children
from different cultures are more and more
alike the younger they are

Empirical evidence
 Research
◼ North
on expectations for the future
American think linearly, East Asians nonlinearly
about change (will better, then worse)
◼ 7 year-old Chinese and Canadian more alike than 11
year old
What kinds of childhood experiences
differ across cultures?

Sleeping arrangements



Where do we put the baby? A private room? With mother?
The “moralizing” of parenting behaviors
Principles deciding sleeping arrangements



East Indians
 Incest avoidance
 Protection of the vulnerable
 Female chastity anxiety
 Respect for hierarchy
Americans
 Incest avoidance
 Sacred couples
 Autonomy ideal
Affect on socialization? Learning different things about
themselves and their relations with others

Individualistic v. collectivistic orientations
 Use
of “I” reference appears at early age in
individualistic cultures
◼ Basis


in interaction with parents
North Americans – acknowledge child’s feelings or
perspectives to gain their compliance
◼ Child learns s/he is an “independent” agent
◼ Also focus on success and what child can be
Chinese – lead the interaction and introduce topics
while children follow the lead
◼ Child learns s/he is a relational being who needs to
respond to parent
◼ Focus on transgressions and how to fit in better

Attachment styles
 Bowlby’s
research
◼ Created
separation situations
◼ Attachment styles



Secure
Avoidant
Anxious-ambivalent
◼ Significance
of childhood attachment patterns on adult
attachment in relationships
 The
cross-cultural findings
◼ Trends
and view of what is preferable

Noun biases
 Childhood
◼ First
 Why
emphasis on nouns in language
words learned; show up more in speech
does this happen?
◼ A function
on the language?
◼ A function of how children learn to communicate
about objects across cultures?

Affects how we perceive the world
Difficult developmental transitions
 The
terrible twos
◼ Increase
in noncompliant/oppositional behavior in young
toddlers – really an important developmental milestone
where child is learning to exert autonomy and control?
◼ Apparently not – evidence from other cultures

Africa, Mexico, Japan – toddlers not as disobedient
 Adolescent
rebellion
◼ Is
teen violence and acting out due to hormones?? Is this
universal?


Agreement that transitioning in roles occur
Findings of differences of expectations and actual reports of
violence influenced by individualism and modernity
Socialization through education

Education
 Teaches content
and skills
 Changes the ways people approach problems (i.e.,
strategies)
 Problem of confounding formal school with other
variables in research
◼ Study
 Case
by Stevenson – schooling does help
study: East Asians and Math education
General info on Socialization and
Enculturation

Across all cultures – desire is for children to come out of it as
competent, productive adults
 Each
culture has its own understanding of the
competencies of adulthood are
◼ In
societies with formal education, children receive books
and instruction
◼ In societies with informal education, children learn
functional skills


Socialization = the process and mechanisms through which
learn about one’s society
Enculturation = the products of the socialization process
Socialization Agents





Parents
Siblings
Extended family
Peers
Institutions and organizations
 As
we’ve seen with education already
Parenting

Whiting and Whiting’s Six Culture Study (1975)
 Observation
and interview data gathered from
Mexico, India, Kenya, US, Okinawa and Phillippines
◼ Found
that variations in parenting associated with
children’s behaviors and personality

Example: women’s work roles – if mom worked, children
became more independent and shared in family responsibilities
◼ Level of
infant mortality changed focus of parental effort –
high mortality = more focus on meeting basic physical
needs

Parenting goals
3
levels – physical health/survival; promoting selfsufficiency behaviors; developing behaviors that
promote other cultural values

Parenting beliefs
 Do
children “grow up” or are they “brought up”
 How does one spend time with children:
◼ “Special” time
v. “family” time

Global parenting styles
 Baumrind
◼ Maccoby
 Is
– authoritarian, permissive, authoritative
& Martin – added uninvolved
authoritative universally “bad”?
◼ Chinese
parenting – incorporates the notion of chiao shun
or training, which involves close supervision……seen as a
sign of love and concern
 General
idea: what “commodity” does parent provide?
◼ Emotional support
and time? Moral guidance and advice?
Material resources?

What is “appropriate” parenting behavior?
 Domain
specific parenting
Socialization roles of others

Siblings
A
relatively neglected area of research but can focus
on: changing nature of family structure (step-sibs);
roles of siblings; roles of different sibs within the
family itself (who goes to school, who works?)
 Role of birth order
◼ Impact

of older siblings on younger siblings –
example:
◼ siblings tend to share similar attitudes on gender beliefs of
older sib;
◼ Delinquent behaviors of older siblings

Extended/Multi-generational families
 Presence in
other cultures
 In US often a result of lower economic situation
◼ Teen
pregnancy as well
◼ Impact of the grandmother
 Most
common tendency is the sharing of resources,
emotional support, and caregiving

Peers
 Impact
may have to do with rate of change in a
society, levels of isolation and industrialization
 Also looking at impact of culturally-specific bullying
CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY:
A PSYCHOLOGY OF PEOPLES
Chapters 6 & 8: Self (including self-motives) &
Personality
Self in PSYC 100

Mostly in Personality chapters (not really the same
thing conceptually)
 Psychoanalytic
(Freud)
 Humanistic (Rogers & Maslow)
 Behavioral
 Trait

The social psychology approach
 Developing self
others
through experiences and contact with
Motivation & PSYC 100


First of all….the topic doesn’t always show up in a
PSYC 100 textbook
Topics:
 Instincts v
drive
 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
 Types of motivated behavior
◼ Hunger
◼ Sexual
behaviors
◼ Need to belong
Chapter Six – Self & Personality

Overview of topics of coverage
Who am I?
 Independent v. Interdependent view of self
 Individualism and collectivism
 Beyond individualism and collectivism
 A note on the heterogeneity of individuals and cultures
 Gender and culture
 Some other ways that cultures differ in the Self-concept
 Implicit theories regarding the nature of the self
 Personality

Who am I?
 Our
view of self influences how we perceive
the world and interact with others
 Twenty Questions Exercise
◼ Intent
is to demonstrate that culture affects
self-description at both superficial and deep
levels such as psychological attributes and roles
and relationships.
◼ Widely used in research cross-culturally
 Example
study – American undergraduates compared
to Kenyan undergrads, workers and indigenous group
Independent v. interdependent views
of self

Independent view of self
 Characteristics:
◼ Derived from inner
attributes
◼ Essence of the person’s identity
◼ Stable across situations and life-span
◼ What make a person unique
◼ Self-contained and arise from the individual
◼ Significant for regulating behavior
◼ How they publicly advertise themselves

Interdependent view of self
 View
of self as a relational entity fundamentally
connected to and sustained by significant
relationships
 Behavior is contingent on perceptions of others’
thoughts, feelings, actions
◼ Need
to consider how one’s behaviors affects others
◼ Personal psychological experience are in response
to what others are thinking or doing

Why construal of self is important in
psychological functioning
 Organizes
information about ourselves
 Directs our attention to relevant information
 Shapes the concerns we have
 Guides us in our relationships
 Influences how we appraise situations
 Influences our emotional experiences
Individualism and collectivism

Two different views of self – Markus & Kitayama



Individualistic – people typically describe themselves based
on independent aspects of themselves
Collectivistic – people describe themselves based on
interdependent aspects of themselves
Hofstede used these concepts to map IBM workers
worldwide and distinctive pattern was observed
Beyond individualism and
collectivism
 Other
dimensions being used to study cultural
variation
◼ Power
distance
◼ Uncertainty avoidance
◼ Vertical-horizontal social structure
◼ Relationship structure
◼ Intellectual autonomy
◼ Context-dependence
◼ Social cynicism and complexity
◼ Societal tightness
A note on heterogeneity….

The discussion on independent v. interdependent
construals of self not meant to generalize to all persons
within a specific culture




Individual differences assume that specific people vary within a
culture
Determinants of a person’s behavior = situations they
encounter on a daily basis
“individualism” = people in that culture are exposed to
more cultural messages that encourage them to think in
independent ways
Cultures do tend to have internal coherence due to media
messages, norms/practices, and prevalent institutions
Gender and culture

Are women more interdependent? Men more
independent?
 Empirical
studies
◼ Kashima &
colleagues (1995) – found that women
only differed from men on relatedness
◼ Williams & Best (1990) – looking at perceptions
(stereotypes) of gender differences; found consistent
cross-cultural consensus on traits that characterize
men v. women


Traits were generally positive although slight trend for
male traits to be viewed more positively
Men and women viewed as different in activity and
strength
◼ Kalin


& Tilby (1978) – Views on gender equality
Differences in gender equality across countries
◼ Views tended to be similar within a country
◼ Suggested that views are part of the cultural discourse and
shape people’s views
Other factors that may affect
◼ Religion
◼ Geographic location
◼ Individualism
◼ Feinman
(1981) and Mahalingam (2003) – is gender
“essentialized” ? Does it seem unchangeable?
Other ways cultures differ in selfconcept

Self-consistency – does a person seem to always
behave the same or change depending on the
situation/who they are with?
 Kanagawa
& colleagues (2001) – self-ratings of
American v. Japanese students
◼ Americans
generally more positive and stayed that way
across different situations
◼ Shows us potential problem in measuring self-consistency
in interdependent persons

What’s the problem for theory?

Festinger’s (1957) theory of cognitive dissonance


Any cross-cultural evidence?



Motivation to be consistent – dissonance arises when we’re
inconsistent
◼ Change behaviors or attitudes to regain consistency
◼ Affects our decision making
Heine & Lehman (1997) – CD study found Canadians rationalized
their choice of CD; Japanese did not
Hoshino-Browne (2005) – Japanese rationalize when making
decisions that affect others
North American – self- consistency; Japanese – otherconsistency

Consistency and impact on behavior
 eg.
– impact of fundraisers and advertisers
◼ Findings
– Americans more influenced than Polish by
information of their past performance whereas Poles more
influenced by the past behaviors of peers

Assuming behavior is functional
 Suh
(2002) – Americans report consistent behavior
affects well-being, positive social skills and how
likeable they are

Self-awareness – extent to which person focuses
on world or self
 Subjective
self-awareness – concerned about the
world outside themselves; unaware of self as
individual; attention directed aware from oneself
 Objective self-awareness – how do you appear to
others (self as object); concerns directed toward self;
conscious of being evaluated and whether behaving
according to standards (usually when we think we’re
falling short on some standard)

Examples of studies on Americans that manipulate selfawareness and then measure how self-critical – findings
support that objective self-awareness leads to higher levels of
being self-critical

Does culture affect self-awareness?

If interdependent – more likely to already be in state of
objective self-awareness




Cohen & Gunz (2002) – Asian Canadians more third-person imagery
Cohen & Hoshino-Browne (2005) – East Asians more accurate in
predicting whether others could identify tapped tunes
Heine & colleagues (2007) – Japanese unaffected by mirror
Leuers & Sonoda (1999) – Japanese photographs depicted more
formality
Implicit theories of self

Is the self able to change or is it fixed, innate?
 Incremental
theory – abilities/traits can be improved
 Entity theory – abilities/traits are fixed at birth

Examples of research
 Responses to


failure
Incremental – failure due to need for more study or remediation
Entity – failure due to lack of innate skill (more of a North
American perspective)
 Impact
◼ US
of perspective on schools
– SAT and IQ tests
◼ Japan – cram schools and no IQ tests
Personality


Primary focus – ways in which people are
different
Trait approach – how people differ in their
underlying traits
 Relationship
to moving before college
◼ If
move a lot, identity based more on traits than
relationships
 Cross-culturally,
people recognize systematic
temperament differences
◼ Different personality typologies

Five Factor Model of Personality (Big 5)
 Use
of factor analysis to create groups of traits in 5
core traits
◼ Openness to
experience: intelligence/curiosity about
world
◼ Conscientiousness: how responsible/dependable person is
◼ Extraversion: how active/dominant person is
◼ Agreeableness: how warm/pleasant person is
◼ Neuroticism: if person is unstable and unpredictable
 All
personality traits correlate with these
 The basic “structure” of personality

Use of the NEO-PI-R cross-culturally
 McCrae
& colleagues (2005) – across 50 cultures,
people’s responses were organized around the 5
factors
◼ People
tend to think of themselves in terms of the 5 basic
personality traits (apparently even among animals!!)
 What
if we looked at trait words from other
languages?
◼ Development of

the CPAI by Cheung & colleagues (1996)
Didn’t find the 5 factors but there were relationships between
CPAI and NEO-PI-R
Chapter Eight

Overview of topics of coverage
 Motivations
for self-enhancement and self-esteem
 Motivations for face and self-improvement
 Religion and achievement motivation
 Agency and control
◼ Primary &
secondary control
◼ Making choices
 Motivations
to fit in or stick out
What is motivation?
 Our
underlying reasons for what we do
 Motivated to pursue what we want and
avoid what we don’t want
 Common motivations
◼ Quality
of life
◼ Access to material rewards
◼ Stimulating relationships
◼ Securing respect
 How
we get these things is influenced by
our culture
Self-enhancement & self-esteem

Self-enhancement – the motivation to view
ourselves in a positive way
 Evidence:
◼ 93%
of Americans in a sample had high self-esteem
◼ Presence of self-serving biases


Optimistic bias
Invulnerability
◼ Why
these happen? – lack of objective information
about our abilities

Other self-enhancing strategies
 Downward
& upward social comparison
 Compensatory self-enhancement
 Discounting
 External attributions
 Basking in reflected glory

Cross-cultural differences?
 Diff
in self-esteem reports
 Diff in memories for success

Why the differences?
 Biased
measurement?
◼ Endowment
effect
 Value
diff traits?
 Simply cultural diff in self-description?



The role of the Protestant Reformation
Belief in predestination – can only get cues from
life situations
Increase in individualism and self-esteem in US
Face & self-improvement

Face – “amount of social value others give you if you
live up to the standards associated with your
position.”




Only granted by others
Motivated to maintain and enhance face
More easily lost than acquired
Strategy for maintaining face


Prevention v. promotion orientation
 How strategies affect responds to success & failure
Self-improvement motivation

Desire to seek out weaknesses and work on correcting
them
CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY:
A PSYCHOLOGY OF PEOPLES
Chapter 4: Methods for studying culture and
psychology
The Role of Research Methods in
Psychology

Research is based on:
 Theory
 Other
research
 New issues and observation

Connection of theory to method
 Different
methods have advantages and disadvantages
 Methods chosen have an impact on statistics we
perform
Quick Method Overview

To describe a phenomenon
 Surveys
(sometimes
 Clinical or field observations
 Archival data

To predict a phenomenon
 Correlational
◼ Also use
research
this for understanding basic relationships

To explain a phenomenon
 “True” experiments
◼ Something
is manipulated and everything else is kept
constant
◼ Classic design: experimental vs. control group
◼ Pay attention to – participant selection, participant
assignment, eliminating confounds
 Quasi-experiments
◼ Have a
lot of the features of experiments but can’t
randomly assign people to different groups

Therefore…..can only say there is a difference.
Chapter Four

Overview of topics of coverage

Considerations for conducting research across cultures






What cultures should we study?
Making meaningful comparisons across cultures
Conducting cross-cultural research with surveys
Conducting cross-cultural research with experiments
Conducting cross-cultural research with multiple methods
Some methods particular to the study of culture
◼ Situation sampling
◼ Cultural priming
◼ Culture-level measures
◼ The challenge of unpackaging
Some starting thoughts….
 Studying
the mind is challenging since people don’t
often know why they think what they do – it’s
outside their awareness level
 Also often difficult to understand why others do
what they do
 Need some standard research methods to conduct
our investigations
◼ Look
for similarities and differences
◼ If we find differences, attempt to explain the source(s)
for those differences
Considerations for conducting research
across cultures
 Tend
to use the methods favored by the various subdisciplines and recognize their strengths and
weaknesses
 Particular focus on…
◼ Surveys
◼ Experiments
◼ Mixed
 Unique
methods
problems that arise with use of these
methods in cultural psychology
What cultures should we study?

Make a thoughtful choice of cultural groups on
the basis of your research question
 If
looking for universality – choose different cultures
◼ If
they produce similar results on the “thing” you’re
interested in, THEN that “thing” must be universal…
 If
looking for differences – choose similar cultures
Making meaningful comparison across
cultures

Start out by educating yourself about the culture




Read anthropological literature and enthnologies
Find a collaborator from that culture
Go live in that culture
Culture influences how people will perceive your
methodologies



Familiarity with “test-taking” approaches
All good studies depend on some level of cultural
understanding
Understanding of research setting affected by culture


E.g., industrialized countries
Importance of generalizability and power
Conducting cross-cultural research
with surveys
 Particular
issues to consider
◼ Language
differences and the need to translate the survey
questions


Only have bilingual participants?
Which language they use to answer survey affects thinking
processes
◼ Problems of
non-equivalence for words
◼ Should the investigator be bilingual? (why would this
help?)

◼ Use
Greater understanding of question intent
of back-translation
◼ Problem


of response tendencies
Moderacy or extremity biases
◼ standardization
Acquiescence bias
◼ Use of reverse-scored questions
◼ Thinking about reference


Evaluating self compared to others
Value of writing concrete questions
◼ Consider


groups
alternative methods
Behavioral observations
Physiological measures
◼ How
deprivation effects contaminate values measurement
Conducting cross-cultural research
with experiments


Psychology loves experiments and let’s remember
why….
How between-groups and within-groups
experiments contribute to study of cultural
psychology
Conducting cross-cultural research
with multiple methods

Why use multiple methods??

Occam’s Razor – simpler explanation or theory
usually more likely to be accurate
Some methods particular to the study
of culture

Situation sampling
Develop set of situations
 Ask people to respond as to how they think they would
feel or act
 Types of analysis possible


Cultural priming
 Activating
◼ E.g.,
cultural ideas in the study
independence/interdependence primes and selfdescriptions

Culture-level measures
 Need
to have some way of knowing about cultures
◼ Studying
cultural messages (e.g., advertisements, music
lyrics

Unpackaging
 Finding
a cultural difference doesn’t help us
understand why it exists
◼ Steps
to unpackaging
The case study on southern US

The culture of honor and it’s relationship to
violence
Possible essay

Identify and discuss 3 issues in conducting
cross-cultural research and suggest
appropriate remedies where possible.
CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY:
A PSYCHOLOGY OF PEOPLES
Chapter 2: Culture & Human Nature
Chapter Two

Overview of topics of coverage
 Is
culture unique to humans?
◼ Cultural
learning
◼ Cumulative cultural evolution
 Why
are humans adept at cultural learning?
◼ Your
and your big brain
◼ Humans v chimpanzees
◼ What is the evolutionary advantage of a large brain?
◼ Learning from each other
Is culture unique to humans?
 How
are we going to define culture?
◼ One
definition: having a set of signals, icons, and
words that refer to something else that most
members of a culture recognize
◼ Another: being able to learn information from other
members of our species through social transmission

Examples of other species that have appeared to
“transmit” information to others (e.g., Imo, chimps,
elephants, dolphins, whales, pigeons, guppies, octopus)
Cultural learning
 So…if
other species so evidence of cultural
learning..what makes humans unique?
Animals aren’t very efficient in their learning…it
takes them a long time to “learn” whereas
humans can do so with one observation
 Behaviors are often shared by (nearly)
everyone in a culture
 Humans are selective in whom they
imitate…learn from those who are talented or
successful (does this remind you of Bandura’s
social learning?)

 Humans
◼ The


are able to engage in perspective taking
theory of mind
People have minds of their own
Other peoples’ perspectives and intentions may be
different than our own
◼ Differences



between imitative and emulative learning
Imitative learning: learner internalizes something of the
model’s goals and behavioral strategies
Emulative learning: learner is focused only on the
environmental events that were involved in model’s
behavior (not motives or intentions….only behavioral steps
involved)
How seemed “smarter”….the chimps or the children???

Humans use language to facilitate cultural
learning



Through language we can question, clarify, persuade,
describe, direct, and explain – directly manipulate the
thoughts in others’ minds
Human language is rich due to rules of
grammar/syntax and vast vocabulary
Use of language results in more precise cultural
learning

Cumulative cultural evolution
 After
an initial idea is learned from other, it can be
modified and improved upon such that it grows in
complexity and utility over time (i.e., the ratchet
effect)
◼ Requires
accurate imitative learning and sophisticated
communication
 Example
◼ Use of
of the ratchet effect
tools
 Innovations
grow at an exponential rate
 Why are ideas lost???
 Cultural evolution is not limited to physical objects
Why are humans adept at cultural
learning?

You and your big brain

Encephalization quotient (EQ): brain weight relative to
predicted brain of animal with comparable body size….ours is
4.6…our brains are nearly 5 times larger than other similarly
sized animals. Consider the amount of cerebral cortex we have.


Humans v chimps



What are the “costs” in terms of metabolic energy….and what effects that
had on our physical evolution. Why did our brains get that way?
Chimps EQ = 2.5
Amount of gut
Advantage of cooking food for humans

Evolutionary advantage of a large brain
 What
evolutionary pressures supported big
brains?
◼ Diet-based


theories
Mental maps for finding fruits
Cognitive abilities for extracting nuts from shells
◼ Social-based

theory
The social brain hypothesis

How are the 3 theories tested?
 Dunbar,
1992 study
◼ Neocortex
ratio calculation for primates
◼ Assessing: amount of fruit in diet, amount of extractive v
nonextractive foods in diet, average size of social group

Other supporting evidence for the social brain
hypothesis
 Reaction
to stress vocalizations
 Dunbar (1993)
◼ average
clan size = 150
◼ Anecdotal evidence of the Hutterites (and issue of peer
pressure)
 Herrmann
◼ Why

et al. (2007)
humans have the largest brains of the primates
Looked at various types of tasks
Possible essay

Discuss the three theories for why primates and
humans have larger brains. Specifically include
research evidence in your discussion.

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